Related article: in other aspects of the environment, including the Order Vrikshamla social environment (other
people). This byproduct had an impact on social organization as well, since
those being Buy Vrikshamla Online attuned to other people are more likely to think in collectivist
[The authors, to the contrary, assert that more collectivist societies somehow
affect visual processing, a nice AntiRacist claim but an ad hoc one.
[I'm not sure the Purchase Vrikshamla Online authors were really thinking about the co-evolution question,
though. And they might have presented data about Chinese-Americans instead of
just Chinese Chinese and White Americans. Nisbett did give data on Japanese
Americans iirc in his excellent (but also AntiRacist) book, _The Geography of
Thought_, cited at the end. If Chinese Americans performed exactly the same as
Chinese Chinese in these experiments, we'd have something that is likely to be
mostly the result of racial differences. But social organization can effect
individual psychology (cultural anthropologists cite instances of this all the
time), and it would have been fascinating to have had this extra information.
[But it would be safer not have included Chinese Americans, as the SSSM
collapses, which collapse I reported on earlier. AntiRacists are getting more
and more alike Creationists every day. They needn't, for the race issue is Buy Vrikshamla no
longer that of superiority and inferiority. It is that of pluralism and whether
differences among the world's cultures are deep enough to put a brake on the
American democratic capitalism juggernaut.
[Invoking "culture" as an all-purpose explanation of everything is
spiritualism, really, for such invocations brush aside any material substrate
upon which culture can act! This is worse than Creationism.
[Thanks to Peter for passing on the reference to this article. I can supply the
PDF if you want to see the graphics.
In the past decade, cultural differences in perceptual judgment and memory have
been observed: Westerners attend more to focal objects, whereas East Asians
attend more to contextual information. However, the underlying mechanisms for
the apparent differences in cognitive processing styles have not been known. In
the present study, we examined the possibility that the cultural differences
arise from culturally different viewing patterns when confronted with a
naturalistic scene. We measured the eye movements of American and Chinese
participants while they viewed photographs with focal object on complex
background. In fact, the Americans fixated more on focal objects than did the
Chinese, and the Americans tended to look at the focal object more quickly. In
addition, the Chinese made more saccades to the background than did the
Americans. Thus, it appears that differences in judgment and memory may have
their origins in differences in what is actually attended as people view scene.
A growing literature suggests that people from different cultures have
differing cognitive processing styles (1, 2) Westerners, in particular North
Americans, tend to be more analytic than East Asians. That is, North Americans
attend to focal objects more than do East Asians, analyzing their attributes
and assigning them to categories. In contrast, East Asians have been held to be
more holistic than Westerners and are more likely to attend to contextual
information and make judgments based on relationships and similarities.
Causal attributions for events reflect these differences in analytic vs.
holistic thought. For example, Westerners tend to explain events in terms that
refer primarily or entirely to salient objects (including people) whereas East
Asians are more Purchase Vrikshamla inclined to explain events in terms of contextual factors (3-5)
There also are differences in performance on perceptual judgment and memory
tasks (6-8) For example, Masuda and Nisbett (6) asked participants to report
what they saw in underwater scenes. Americans emphasized focal objects, that
is, large, brightly colored, rapidly moving objects. Japanese reported 60% more
information about the background (e.g. rocks, color of water, Order Vrikshamla Online small nonmoving
objects) than did Americans. After viewing scenes containing single animal
against realistic background, Japanese and American participants were asked to
make old/new recognition judgments for animals in a new series of pictures.
Sometimes the focal animal was shown against the original background; other
times the focal animal was shown against a new background. Japanese and
Americans were equally accurate in detecting the focal animal when it was
presented in its original background. However, Americans were more accurate