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Related article: in other aspects of the environment, including the Order Vrikshamla social environment (other people). This byproduct had an impact on social organization as well, since those being Buy Vrikshamla Online attuned to other people are more likely to think in collectivist terms. [The authors, to the contrary, assert that more collectivist societies somehow affect visual processing, a nice AntiRacist claim but an ad hoc one. [I'm not sure the Purchase Vrikshamla Online authors were really thinking about the co-evolution question, though. And they might have presented data about Chinese-Americans instead of just Chinese Chinese and White Americans. Nisbett did give data on Japanese Americans iirc in his excellent (but also AntiRacist) book, _The Geography of Thought_, cited at the end. If Chinese Americans performed exactly the same as Chinese Chinese in these experiments, we'd have something that is likely to be mostly the result of racial differences. But social organization can effect individual psychology (cultural anthropologists cite instances of this all the time), and it would have been fascinating to have had this extra information. [But it would be safer not have included Chinese Americans, as the SSSM collapses, which collapse I reported on earlier. AntiRacists are getting more and more alike Creationists every day. They needn't, for the race issue is Buy Vrikshamla no longer that of superiority and inferiority. It is that of pluralism and whether differences among the world's cultures are deep enough to put a brake on the American democratic capitalism juggernaut. [Invoking "culture" as an all-purpose explanation of everything is spiritualism, really, for such invocations brush aside any material substrate upon which culture can act! This is worse than Creationism. [Thanks to Peter for passing on the reference to this article. I can supply the PDF if you want to see the graphics. ------------ Summary: In the past decade, cultural differences in perceptual judgment and memory have been observed: Westerners attend more to focal objects, whereas East Asians attend more to contextual information. However, the underlying mechanisms for the apparent differences in cognitive processing styles have not been known. In the present study, we examined the possibility that the cultural differences arise from culturally different viewing patterns when confronted with a naturalistic scene. We measured the eye movements of American and Chinese participants while they viewed photographs with focal object on complex background. In fact, the Americans fixated more on focal objects than did the Chinese, and the Americans tended to look at the focal object more quickly. In addition, the Chinese made more saccades to the background than did the Americans. Thus, it appears that differences in judgment and memory may have their origins in differences in what is actually attended as people view scene. A growing literature suggests that people from different cultures have differing cognitive processing styles (1, 2) Westerners, in particular North Americans, tend to be more analytic than East Asians. That is, North Americans attend to focal objects more than do East Asians, analyzing their attributes and assigning them to categories. In contrast, East Asians have been held to be more holistic than Westerners and are more likely to attend to contextual information and make judgments based on relationships and similarities. --------------------------- Causal attributions for events reflect these differences in analytic vs. holistic thought. For example, Westerners tend to explain events in terms that refer primarily or entirely to salient objects (including people) whereas East Asians are more Purchase Vrikshamla inclined to explain events in terms of contextual factors (3-5) There also are differences in performance on perceptual judgment and memory tasks (6-8) For example, Masuda and Nisbett (6) asked participants to report what they saw in underwater scenes. Americans emphasized focal objects, that is, large, brightly colored, rapidly moving objects. Japanese reported 60% more information about the background (e.g. rocks, color of water, Order Vrikshamla Online small nonmoving objects) than did Americans. After viewing scenes containing single animal against realistic background, Japanese and American participants were asked to make old/new recognition judgments for animals in a new series of pictures. Sometimes the focal animal was shown against the original background; other times the focal animal was shown against a new background. Japanese and Americans were equally accurate in detecting the focal animal when it was presented in its original background. However, Americans were more accurate